Approaches with reference to their Meaning, Focus, Principles, Techniques, Advantages and Limitations (2)

Approaches to Teaching English
The structural and situation approaches are used to teach English

Structural approach
The structural approach involves the arrangement of words in such a way that they form a suitable sentence pattern. The excellence of sentence structures is believed to be more helpful than vocabulary knowledge.

Structures are tools of a language and are not sentences. Structures do not require any grammar background, whereas sentences are a grammar order of words.

In the words of C S Bhandari, 'the different arrangement or patterns of words are called structures.'

Types of Structure
There are four types of structures namely sentence patterns, phrase patterns, formulas and idioms. 

Sentence Patterns are a layout for sentences that have the same shape and construction but are made up of different words.

Phrase patterns are collections of words that express an idea. They are not sentences or clauses of sentences. For example, in the school, on the desk, with a knife, and so on.

Formulas are those words which are used on specific occasions . for example, How are you? Good morning, thank you, etc.

Idioms are structures that are taught as whole. For example 'rich as Croseus'(Croseus was king of Lydia now Turkey) 'every cloud has a silver lining', (no matter how bad a situation might seem, there is always has some good aspect to it).

Structures which are frequently used in written and spoken language should be selected for teaching. So also simple structures like I am walking, He is sleeping, You are eating. etc. Structures which are easily teachable should be introduced first. Or example, the structure, I am sitting can be taught more easily than I am thinking. 

Structures can be classified into
(a) structures which identify things and persons 
(b) structures which locate the things and persons in space 
(c) structures which fix the things and persons in time 

Content words are also taught in the structural approach because teaching would be boring and uninteresting without them. Only content words resulting from particular situations are taught. For example, I f the teacher is holding a duster, the content word 'duster' is taught. The selection of content words is taken by their usefulness, simplicity, and teachability.

A suitable situation should be created in order to practise the structure and relate its meaning to it, as well as to build a vocabulary of content words. Each structure is taught separately. The teacher places the item in a proper context.

For example, to teach the structure 'into' the teacher puts a basket on the table and puts an apple into the basket. This is followed by oral drill by the students. The item is presented in some new situation, followed by oral drill . Overall drill is done. 

Principles of Structural Approach
The three principles of structural approach are: 
(1) Importance of the student's activity rather than the teacher's activity 
(2) The importance of speech is entity set in the word
(3) The importance of formation of the language habit in arranging words in suitable English patterns, thus replacing the student's mother tongue's sentence patterns

Aims of Structural Approach 
(a) To teach about 275 different structures 
(b) To build a vocabulary of about 3000 root words for active use.
(c) To link the teaching of grammar structure with the teaching of reading.
(d) To teach the four fundamental skills of understanding, speaking reading and writing 
(e) To focus the aural-oral approach and active methods while criticising formal grammar for its own sake.

Situational Approach 
In this approach English is taught in the same way in which the child learns his mother tongue. The main features of learning the mother tongue are: 
(1) Every item of the mother tongue i.e. learnt in a real situation 
(2) Whatever the child understands and expresses is connected with his own life 
(3) The situation in which the child learns his mother tongue are repeated again and again 

Procedure for Teaching by the Situational Approach 
(1) The new word is introduced incidentally in class by the teacher through the use of classroom objects. For example, This is a blackboard. It is a table. 
(2) The teacher provide many chance for learners to link the words with the relating situations. Affirmative, negative and interrogative forms of speech are presented by asking the following questions: 
What is this? (Interrogative) 
Is this a table? (Affirmative) 
Are you pointing to the blackboard? (Negative)
(3) There is a lot of repetition.
(4) The requirement is used when the teacher tells the student to do something while trying to speak the statements. For Example: Satish, get up and stand near the table 
(5) Continuous revision is carried out.
(6) 66% of the time is reserve for pronunciation, drill, reading, spelling, writing, etc. 

Merits of Situational Approach
(a) This method follows the principles of interest, variety and simplicity 
(b) Activity in the class makes it lively, 
(c) It focuses on learning through play.
(d) It focuses on learning by hearing 
(e) It makes use of teaching aids 

Demerits of Situational Approach
(a) It can be used to teach only well selected words and sentence patterns 
(b) It is suitable for only lower classes 
(c) Drilling too much makes the class boring.
(d) Prose. poetry, composition cannot be taught by this method 
(e) Textbooks cannot be taught by this method 
(f) Trained teachers are required

The Structural—Oral—Situational approach 
The British school came up with the structural—oral—situational approach to teach a foreign/second language and performed a large-scale experiment in real-world conditions with the support of the British Council. The Madras English Language Teaching Campaign, or MELT, was started up in 1952-53.

The experiment was planned systematically in terms of materials, teacher-trainer training, teacher training and classroom Pedagogy.  The campaign was so successful that the Regional Institute of English, South India, was established in Bangalore in reply to a demand from the other South Indian states, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala, as a subject matter expert and teacher training institute, as well as a materials manufacturing centre. The large number of the texts produced between 1960 and 1970 are based on the British model of the structural-oral-situational approach.

Principles of Structural-Oral-Situational Approach
The structural-oral-situational approach is based on the following principles: 
(1) Language is primarily made up of spoken words. Learners practice all structures and vocabulary items orally before moving on to reading and writing. The following is the recommended order for learning language skills:
listening - speaking - reading - writing. 
(2) Language is a collection of habits; practise is an important part of the language teaching/learning sense.
(3) Situations can be used to avoid using the mother tongue. If the language item is presented in a meaningful situation, the learner can find its meaning and context from the situation, and the mother tongue is not required.

Vocabulary items are classified as well. Language experts and researchers classify the papers. Depending on whether English as a second language was taught from Standard III or Standard V, the syllabus usually consisted of about 250 structures or language items and 2500 to 3000 vocabulary items spread over a five to seven-year period.

Lesson Based on Structural-Oral-Situational Approach
Why does it rain? 
Student's section 
The teacher will read out a passage and asks the students to close their books and listen to her.
On the second day, the teacher will read the passage aloud, again. The students should listen to her. This time, however, she will pause after every few sentences and ask you a question or two. Answer her questions in a word or in a phrase. 
On the third day, the teacher will ask the students to look through the two exercises below, before she reads out the passage once or twice. Listen to her carefully and do the exercises as you listen, or soon after you have finished listening. 

(1) Approach: Structural—oral—situational 
(2) Syllabus: 
(a) Grammatical items were used to examine structure.
(b) Vocabulary item selection and classification
(c) drill - repeated exposure - contextualisation
(3) Course: 
(a) teaching items 
(b) Different vocabulary items 
(c) drilling 
(d) focus on accuracy.

Dr. Georgi Lozanov, a Bulgarian doctor of medicine, psychiatrist, and parapsychologist, supported this method. It is based on the principle of 'joy and easiness.' 
Much of the model was based on 'suggestology', a psychological theory that states that humans react to visual signals that they are not fully aware of. 
We do not fully use our mental capacities because we have many psychological barriers within us. We are worried that we will not be able to perform well.

Suggestopedia is a teaching application of suggestion that aims to help learners overcome the belief that they cannot succeed, thereby removing mental barriers to learning. It helps student in unlocking their mind's secret talents.

Principles of Suggestopedia
The three main principles of Suggestopedia are:
(1) Happiness and psycho-relaxation:
Learners will only use their hidden talent only  if they are relaxed and happy. Learners will be interested and involved in meaningful activities using the new language if these conditions are met.
(2)gaining access to the mind's reserve powers 
(3) Conscious and unconscious working together in balance.

In the classroom 
Posters, charts and music are used as aids. The classroom usually has comfortable chairs, in which learners can relax. The chairs are arranged in a semi-circle, with the learners facing the front of the room where charts and visuals are arranged. Special care is taken about the lighting. 

The Method: 
Learners listen to relaxing music, usually classical. They are instructed to close their eyes and engage in some relaxation exercises (like breathing exercises). Students are given new identities. They are either conference delegates, tourists, or people trying for roles in plays or films. The teacher does some initial research, using acting and actions to find out the learners' new identities.

Following that, an activity dialogue is distributed. The dialogue is divided into two columns: one for the dialogue in the target language and one for the translation in the learner's mother tongue. In the mother tongue, there are some comments about the use of certain vocabulary items and grammatical structures in the dialogue. 

The students now listen to the dialogue as it is read aloud by the teacher, usually more than once. Usually, the reading is supported by soft background music. At this point, the students are only required to listen to the dialogue and do not need to do anything else.

The class has come to an end. The dialogue is given to the students and they are asked to go over it. In the next class, students take on roles and read passages of dialogue while imagining themselves in the role of that character. The dialogue is questioned in the target language. Some translation work is also completed. The tasks that the students must complete are usually connected to some enjoyable game principle. For example, the teacher may throw a ball, and the person who catches it have to complete the task.

Learners use the same technique for peer work. After that, other activities such as games, role play, creative language work, and so on are carried out. The cycle is restarted with a new dialogue.

The following pedagogical principles guide this method:
(1) Learning takes place best in a relaxed and happy atmosphere. 
(2) Sufficient listening time should be given for learners to absorb the new material. 
(3) Active participation helps in the learning of new material. 
(4) Role play (fantasy) reduces threat and so barriers to learning can be overcome. 
(5)The functional aspect of language should be focussed.
(6) Fine arts (music, art, drama) aid suggestion and should be integrated with the teaching/learning process. 
(7) The atmosphere, the material, methods and techniques should aim at `infantalisation' (adults are treated like children), so that learners have a childlike (open-minded) attitude to learning. 

Total Physical Response 
James Asher, an experimental psychologist, developed this method. Its principles are based on how a child learns his or her first language. Before trying to speak, a child listens to a lot of language. Even so, the child listens to what is said. This is particularly true of commands. As a result, listening comprehension is the basis of the total physical response method. 

The teacher gives commands, and the students carry them out the action. This is said to be an effective method of learning a language.

The Method: 
The teacher gives a simple command such as, 'Stand up!' Sit down!' The learners do it. If they do not follow the command, the teacher gives a demonstration. Further commands are given. The teacher demonstrates these new commands. The class follows. 

The teacher writes the commands on the blackboard and demonstrates them. The class copies down the sentences. Learners are not required to speak in the initial stages. Later, learners give commands and the rest of the class performs the actions. 

The pedagogic principles of this method are: 
(1) Meaning in the target language can be taught best through actions.
(2) Learners learn best by doing things. 
(3) Other skills should be secondary to listening comprehension.
(4) A feeling of success helps in language learning. Total physical response allows students to achieve a high level of success.

The Silent Way
Caleb Gattegno created the Silent Way in the early 1970s in the United States. It is completely opposed to TPR. Instead of providing extensive active listening comprehension practise, the teacher remains silent for the majority of the time, providing only single examples of new sentence structures and then asking students to try to reproduce the sentence and produce similar ones.

The method is based on the idea that discovery and problem-solving produce far superior learning than repetition and memorization. To benefit from the method, students must focus and usually struggle a little. Teachers must receive specialised training in order to use Silent Way materials and techniques.

Communicative Approach
“Communicative Approach in Language Learning” refers to an approach used in learning a second or foreign language that focuses on improving communicative ability, which is defined as “the ability of applying language principles in order to produce grammatical sentences and understand ‘when, where, and to whom' the sentences are used.”

Because it is directed by the pupil's needs and interests, the communicative approach is much more pupil centred.
The communicative approach aims to adjust and localise language while also adapting it to the interests of students.
The communicative approach aims to use more interesting and motivating realistic resources.

Communicative approach was developed in the 1980s as a reaction to grammar based approaches. It is an approach for second and foreign language teaching which mainly focuses on developing communicative fluency. This approach focus the use of language for meaningful purposes in real situation.

Principles of Communicative Approach
The main principles of communicative approach include: 
(a) goal of effective communication 
(b) learning language by using it to communicate 
(c) focus on meaning and correct usage 
(d) focus both on fluency and accuracy 
(e) use of authentic materials to reflect real life situation and 
(f) integration of four skills (speaking, writing, reading and listening)

Communicative Approach is one of the important approaches to help learners to be able to contact with others in order to talk fluency and to express about themselves confidently and to present many social issues in their environment as quick as possible.

Communicative Approach and Tasks
The Communicative Approach consists of Task which is used in the classroom to teach academic reading. The  focus is on the students' needs, and the task given is well prepared. The task given to students is taken from all areas of academic reading. 

They are carried out in the classroom as part of a group discussion. Each group has five students. Students are engaged in speaking English, expressing their opinions, exchanging ideas, and discussing various aspects of reading for academic purposes. 

The task is given to the students through three cycles of treatment. There are five meetings in each cycle. When the task is given, there is an activity that the students must complete.

The Task consists of three aspects: 
(a) fluency, 
(b) accuracy, and
(c) complexity. 

lt includes classifying, predicting, initiating, taking notes, concept mapping, questioning, modifying, brainstorming, reflecting, and authentic assessment.

The more serious the students are about completing the tasks, the more active they are with the language. All of the activities will have an impact on students' ability to read for academic purposes in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor parts.

Activities used in Communicative Approach Lesson
Here are some activities that can be used in a Communicative Approach lesson:
(1) Role-plays
(2) Information-gap activities
(3) Jigsaw activities
(4) Open-ended discussions and debates

(1) Role-plays
In role-plays, learners are given an imaginary situation and are asked to perform a different role or act as themselves in a particular scenario. Role-plays enable learners to imagine themselves in realistic situations and “rehearse” before they need to use English in real life. These are also fun and motivating for some learners.

(2) Information-gap activities
Information-gap activities require learners to talk to each other and find out missing information they need to perform a certain task. The information missing might include words, numbers and even drawings. The main point is to get students to talk and work collaboratively to share all information they need.

(3) Jigsaw activities
Jigsaw activities involve learners reading, listening or performing different tasks at the same time and later sharing what they have done with their peers. For example, half of the students can be asked to watch a video on a certain topic and the other half can be asked to watch a different video, with a different viewpoint. After learners watch the videos and complete tasks for comprehension, they are asked to share what they had found out with their peers.

(4) Open-ended discussions and debates
Debates and discussions can be a useful tool for fluency practice. They enable learners to share their own views on topics and use their communicative resource to convey ideas, make points, and agree and disagree with others. Debates are usually engaging and provide a rich resource for teachers to assess their learners’ communicative competence. However, preparation for debates should be done thoroughly to help students succeed.
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