Relationship between Education and Sociology

Sociology and education are mutually interrelated and they are interdependent on each other. They are interrelated disciplines like philosophy and education and psychology and education. 

Sociology of education is the scientific study of the analysis of the social progress and social patterns involved in the educational system. Sociology without education is like a body without soul and education without sociology is like a vehicle without wheels. Hence, we may analyse the inter relationship between sociology and education. 

(1) Sociological basis and meaning of education: 
The meaning of education is considerably influenced by sociology. According to the educational sociologists, education is a social process which socialises the child and causes certain changes in his behaviour. In defining education the sociologists have stressed its social aspects. From the sociological point of view Brown says, "Education is the consciously controlled process whereby changes in behaviour are produced in the person and through the person within the group. Educational sociology focuses upon the social forces through which the individual is developed and the social relations by which the individual gains experience". 

(2) Sociological basis and aim of education: According to the educational sociologists, the aim of education from the sociological point of view is to develop those social qualities and social feelings in the child which will enable him to grasp his responsibilities in the society and the nation, and to become an ideal citizen of his country. 

Thus, the aim of education is to enable the individual to live as a member of his society. Educational sociology brings about a change in the habits, skills, interests and attitudes. Sociological knowledge and abilities develop a person into a socially accepted personality, who is adjusted with his environment and socially responsible. 

We can include the following aspects in the aim of education from the sociological points of view: 

(a) Education for social service. 
(b) Education for citizenship. 
(c) Education for social efficiency. 
(d) Education for emotional integration 
(e) Education for national unity. 
(f) Education for nationalism. 
(g) Education for patriotism. 

(3) Sociological basis and functions of education: 
Educational sociologists have stressed the social functions of education. From the sociological point of view, Munroe has laid down the following functions of education: 

(a) Diffusion of more and more knowledge: The first function of education is to provide various kinds of knowledge to the child. Spread of knowledge develops the mind of the child, without which other developments are not feasible. 

(b) Education as a means of social control: Social control through education eventually gives self-control to the child. Hence, in every society, school instils the elements of social control into the younger generation through the process of education. 

(c) Protection and transmission of social heritage: 
Education is an important medium of protecting and transmitting social heritage and culture from one generation to the next. It is through education that the new generation is taught to adopt the culture of our ancestors. The new generation makes its own contribution to this heritage and passes it onto its successor. 

(d) Education as a means of social development:
Individual development is not possible in the absence of social development. The school is considered as a miniature society. Therefore, the educators try to create an ideal social environment with a view to inculcate the best possible picture of society in the minds of the educands. 

(e) Development of constructive and creative outlook of the individual: 
After leaving the school, the educand retains the ideal social environment of the society in his mind and tries to recreate it in reality. Through education the individual develops a constructive and creative outlook required for the ideal members of the society. 

(4) Sociological basis and curriculum: 
Educational sociologists have given valuable suggestions in relation to the reorganization of the curriculum which reflects the quality and quantity of education. From the sociological point of view, the primary concern of the curriculum is the development of 'we feeling'. Brown, Moore and Cole have pointed out the principles of constructing school curriculum from the point of view of educational sociology: 

(a) Curriculum should be based on conditions, problems and needs of society. 
(b) It should be based on the real concerns and problems of pupils. 
(c) It should reflect the basic cultural values of the society it serves. 
(d) It should be an agent in the transmission of the highest value of the culture. 
(e) It should prepare the child for the world society. 
(f) It should be conducive to the development of responsible citizenship. 
(g) It should prepare socially efficient individuals. 
(h) It should develop healthy attitudes regarding human relations. 
(i) It should be flexible and changeable for the effective realisation of socially determined objectives. 
(j) It should lead to the development of genuine "we feeling", a feeling that the student belongs to the society and has a spirit of social interaction. 
(k) It should treat with dignity all worthwhile vocations and services in the community life. (l) It must function in relation to adult living and concurrently be adapted to the level of the development of the child. 

(5) Sociological basis and method of teaching: From the sociological point of view, only those methods are good which will develop the democratic outlook, social behaviour and social values in the child. The effectiveness of learning for social competency depends on the suitability of motives and procedures. Educational sociologists suggest some methods of teaching such as the Dalton method, project method, group discussion, problem-solving, socialised techniques and constructive thinking. The principles of sociologically based method of teaching are: 

(a) The methods of teaching should enable the pupil to acquire those skills and knowledge in the classroom which are helpful to him in his adjustment to social situations. 

(b) The methods of teaching must seek to utilise the social forces operative in the social life with a view to develop the capacity for social adjustment. 

(c) The methods of teaching should develop problem-solving and constructive thinking. 

(d) The methods should promote democratic feelings, ideals and values. 

(e) The socialised techniques, the project and the group methods, by and large should replace the lecture and recitation method. 

(6) Sociological basis and school: 
According to the sociologists, "School is regarded as a miniature society". But in the modern times, a school is like a living organism. It is because the school brings into being various useful social activities and experiences which promote the development of social qualities in the individuals. In fact, school becomes a social being where all-round personality development is possible and the child develops its internal and external qualities. 

(7) Sociological basis and teacher: 
Dr. S.Kothari, Chairman of Indian Education Commission, says that the destiny of a nation is shaped in its classroom. It is, therefore, the teacher who is a very important instrument in moulding that destiny. Hence, it is very necessary that the teacher must become conscious of his role towards the society. His personality should reflect the characteristics of good citizenship. The teacher himself must be exposed to the concepts of freedom, equalitarianism, dignity of the individual rights and duties. The educational sociologists consider the teacher as a social engineer who can plan an important role in social reconstruction. Therefore, the teacher is expected to possess a right attitude of social behaviour and give due regard to the dignity of the pupils. 

(8) Sociological basis and discipline: 
Educational sociologists stress on the view that education should inculcate social discipline. Discipline should come through participation in group activities and social service activities. Social discipline should naturally emerge in the educand so that he may not indulge in activities that are harmful to the individual or society. In this way community feeling and social discipline can be developed. 

(9) Sociological basis and child education movement: 
From sociological point of view, developed countries began a movement for the education of infants. For instance, many infant schools were established in America and in many European countries which aimed at providing education to the children of poor labourers. 

(10) Sociological basis and monitor method: 
Dr. Andrew Bell has introduced the monitor method on the basis of sociological tendency. This method indicates that children of senior classes teach the children of junior classes. As a result one single educator could teach a large number of educands. Many monitorial schools have been established in a number of countries on the basis of this monitor system. 

(11) Sociological basis and adult education: 
The sociological influence on education insists upon the fact that no individual in the society should be left uneducated. As a result many movements for adult education have been established and classes are conducted during evenings and nights. Great attention has been given to adult education in India. 

(12) Sociological basis and social education: The sociological tendency has a great impact in the field of social education. Social education acquaints the individual with every aspect of his environment and trains him to fulfil his responsibilities as a citizen. This type of education aims not only at the complete development of the individual but also at evolving social unity in him. The agencies of social education are lecturers, exhibitions, meetings, debate, drama, tour etc. 

(13) Sociological basis and responsibility of state: 
Educational sociologists stress that it is the responsibility of the state to provide education. Hence, it is for the state to make every individual capable of earning his livelihood and develop his personality to fulfil his social duties. Proper education of the masses is very essential without which democracy can never be a success. As a result, the state provides primary, secondary, university and professional education. The different levels of education produce better citizens and build a powerful nation.
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