What is the relationship between Development and Learning ?

What is the relationship between Development and Learning?

Introduction
Both development and learning sit alongside one another and affect one another in the following ways:

Learning and development 
Learning can be very useful in bringing about the required development in the various forms and dimensions of the personality of growing children. As a result, learning can be defined as the process of bringing required modifications or changes in a learner's behaviour through experience or training. Learning may result in required changes in behaviour (cognitive, conative, and affective) among learners at some point, and this may result in required development in the physical, mental, emotional, social, lingual, and moral forms or dimensions of their personality (Figure. 1). Let us try to advance on this statement.
Figure1. Relationship between Learning and Development


(1) Learning helps in child’s physical and motor development:
(2) Learning helps in proper mental and cognitive development:
(3) Learning helps in proper social development:
(4) Learning helps in proper emotional development:
(5) Learning helps in one’s proper language development:
(6) Learning helps in one’s moral or character development:   

(1) Learning helps in child’s physical and motor development: 
Learning through formal and informal experiences helps a child in  physical and motor development by providing them with the required knowledge, skills, habits, interests, and attitudes for:
(a) Maintaining good physical health. 
(b) Starting to develop the necessary motor skills and practises for his physical movement, exercising, and body fitness.
(c) Taking the necessary preventive and preventive measures to protect against diseases and environmental abnormalities.
(d) Going to develop healthy eating and living habits that contribute to proper physical and motor development.

(2) Learning helps in proper mental and cognitive development: 
One’s mental and cognitive development includes the development of one’s mental or cognitive abilities and capacities in a proper functional way. These abilities or capacities may be named as thinking and reasoning power, power of imagination and memorisation, ability to analyse, synthesise and conclude, ability to discriminate and critically examine or evaluate, ability to take decision and judgement, power of argumentation and reaching on consent or agreement, etc. These are not inherited but are acquired through the deliberate formal or informal experiences (called learning) by an individual in his life. 

(3) Learning helps in proper social development: 
child, as we know, is quite self-centered and unsociable in the beginning of his life but as he acquires and gathers various learning experiences he becomes mature in terms of his social development. The learning experiences received by him at his home, neighbourhood, school and various other encounters in social situations make him to acquire necessary social virtues, habits, interests and attitudes helpful in his proper social development. 

(4) Learning helps in proper emotional development: 
Emotional development of an individual requires attaining a reasonable level of emotional maturity. One must be able to express his emotions in the right amount, in the right way, at the right time and at the right place. Decidedly, the acquisition of this ability is not an inherited phenomenon. It is acquired and developed properly through a number of formal and informal experiences called learning in one’s life time. 

(5) Learning helps in one’s proper language development: 
The language we speak or use in communication in various ways is mainly acquired through a number of informal and formal experiences called learning. We get skilled and competent in the use of one or the other languages to the extent of learning acquired by us, our efforts in further learning and using that language. So, the knowledge a child at a particular age has acquird in terms of language skill is a product of his learning or acquired behaviour rather than a function of his hereditary characteristics. 

(6) Learning helps in one’s moral or character development: 
Morality or character as we know is fashioned or shaped as a result of various experiences or encounters an individual receives in his life. No genes and chromosomes are responsible for the character formation in a good or bad way. It is entirely an environmental phenomenon and thus necessarily a product of the formal or informal experiences called learning. By providing desirable learning experiences, we can certainly help a child in the development of morality or character in desirable ways. Thus, whatever may be the direction and dimension of one’s development, the learning experiences in a formal or informal way essentially help him in acquiring the desired maturity level of his development.

Development and learning 
One’s learning is equally influenced and affected by the level of his development in one or the other aspect or dimension—physical, motor, mental, social, emotional, linguistic and moral development (Figure 2). Let us try to examine the nature of these influences in relation to various developmental dimensions.

Fig.2. Relationship between Development and Learning















(1) Physical-motor development and learning:
(2) Mental or cognitive development and learning:
(3) Social development and learning:
(4) Emotional development and learning:
(5) Moral development and learning:
(6) Language development and learning:   

(1) Physical-motor development and learning:
Learning of many physical and motor skills is very much dependent on the level of maturity earned in terms of one’s physical and motor development. One cannot learn or practice many physical games and cannot participate in sports activities unless he or she has attained the desired level of one’s physical and motor development. Similarly, learning many tasks needing physical and mental labour cannot be undertaken properly by an individual unless he enjoys a good level of physical health, motor coordination and physical development. 

(2) Mental or cognitive development and learning: 
Learning and acquisition of knowledge and skills related to various areas or aspects of school curriculum as well as tasks and activities related to living one’s life in a desired way depends very much on the level of maturity and development acquired by an individual. While studying the pattern of cognitive development of the children in their development period, Piaget well concluded that children belonging to sensori motor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational stages are capable only to learn and acquire the knowledge and skills fitting properly in their level of cognitive development. As a result, we cannot expect from the little children to grasp the abstract concept and learn difficult cognitive skills. We have to wait for the desired level of their mental maturity for teaching the abstract concept and complex cognitive skills. 

(3) Social development and learning: 
Learning of a child is very much facilitated by the desired level of social development attained by the developing child. According to Albert Bandura, much of the children’s learning is carried out through the mechanism of social learning. Many of the behaviours involving one or the other knowledge area, skills and interests are learned by children through observation, initiation and practice of the observed behaviour. Social company and social interaction, in view of the social constructivists like Vygotsky and Bruner, much helps children in learning many things by constructing knowledge in the company and guidance of their elders, knowledgeable peers and teachers. It can only happen well when a child is able to attain a desired level of his social maturity and development and that is why social development of a child is said to be very much linked with the tasks and responsibilities of his learning. 

(4) Emotional development and learning: 
A child’s emotional development is very much linked with the tasks of his learning. One can learn well when he is found well in tune with his emotional adjustment and emotional development. We cannot expect any good learning by a student who is experiencing intensive anger, fear, jealousy, envy, hate, joy and excitement. He must be able to exercise proper control over the aroused emotions not only at the time of his learning and practising but also at the time of the evaluation of his achievements and performances. Decidedly it can happen well only after attaining a proper level of emotional maturity and emotional development. 

(5) Moral development and learning: 
The processes and products of learning are very much affected and influenced by one’s level of character or moral development. The sincerity, punctuality, duty boundedness, honesty, truthfulness, respect for others’ opinion, faith in cooperation and collaboration, team spirit, etc. The qualities and virtues which are the part and parcel of a man’s character, prove quite effective as well as instrumental in carrying out a learning process on a proper line. The students who are morally deviant or ill-conceived are found to resort to foul means in carrying out their processes of learning. They play truancy and resort to excuses at the time of learning and cheat at the time of examination and hence fail to learn or acquire well for their proper development and progress. On the other hand, morally sound and mature students may be seen making a desired level of progress in their learning and progress. 

(6) Language development and learning: 
Art of communication is the key to learning. One who can grasp and understand well what he is supposed to learn and can communicate or use the outcomes of his learning in a proper way is always adjudged as a good learner and productive citizen. This can be possible only if one’s task of learning is properly matched with the level of the communication language used in the process of one’s teaching and learning. The students who lag in their language development (especially in the language to be employed for their learning and classroom teaching) are found to experience difficulties and lag behind in their studies.
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