Educational Administration and Management


Meaning and Scope of Educational Administration

Meaning:
Educational Administration is regarded as the process of integrating the appropriate human and material resources that are made available and made effective for achieving the purposes of a programme of an educational institution.

The term “Administration” doesn’t refer to any single process or act. It is like a broad umbrella encompassing a number of processes such as: planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, controlling and evaluating the performance. The same situation occurs in the field of educational administration. The concept of educational administration is applicable in case of an educational organisation which has certain purposes or goals to fulfill.

In order to achieve these purposes or goals, the head of the educational organisation plans carefully various programmes and activities. Here the educational organisation may be a school, college or university. The head of the school/college/university organizes these programmes and activities with co-operation from other teachers, parents and students. He/She motivates them and co- ordinates the efforts of teachers as well as directs and exercises control over them. He/She evaluates their performance and progress in achieving the purposes of the programme.

He provides feedback to them and brings modification, if required in the plans and programmes of the school or college or university. So the totality of these processes which are directed towards realizing or achieving the purposes or goals of the school/college/university is called educational administration.

Nature of Educational Administration:
The Educational Administration has the following nature:

1. Educational administration doesn’t refer to any single process rather different processes or aspects constitute administration. These are planning, organizing, directing, Coordinating and evaluation.

2. Educational administration is a non-profit making task.

3. Educational administration is primarily a social enterprise as it is more concerned with human resources than with material resources.

4. Educational administration is more an art than a science. The reason is that human relationship prevailed here can’t be maintained by any set of formulae.

5. Educational administration is similar to general administration in many ways, but it is also dissimilar to general administration in many more ways.

6. Educational administration is a complex affair.

Objectives of Educational Administration:
As we know the very fact that educational administration needs integration and co-ordination of all the physical and human resources and educational elements. Besides this it requires a great efficiency with it based on human sympathy, understanding, knowledge and skill. The physical resources mainly contribute building equipment’s and instructional materials.

The human resources include pupils, teachers, supervisors, administrators and parents. The additional elements comprise the various aspects of educational theory and practice including philosophy of education, objectives of education, curriculum, method of teaching, discipline, role of the teacher, rules and regulations etc.

These elements are “parts, made into whole” and are components brought into harmonious relationship. So the purpose of doing such vital task is to fulfill different purposes which are known as the objectives of educational administration.

These are:

1. To provide proper education to students:
This objective seeks to mention the fact that good education doesn’t mean education at a very high cost as is practiced in modern public schools. Rather it means the right type of education from the right type of teachers within reasonable cost. This objective also implies quantitative expansion and qualitative improvement of education.

2. To Ensure Adequate Utilization Of All Resources:
For adequate realization of the various purposes of educational programme there is the need of ensuring adequate utilization of all available resources-human, material and financial.

3. To Ensure Professional Ethics And Professional Development Among Teachers:
As teachers are the senior and mature human elements to accelerate the programme in time their role is highly felt in this regard. They are to be encouraged and given the facility to devise and try out innovative ideas on instruction and to participate in service education programmes. In this context, it can be visualized that educational administration should aim at developing a desire for hard work, dedication and commitment for their job among teachers.

4. To organize educational programmes for acquainting students with the art of democratic living and giving them excellent training in democratic citizenship.

5. To mobilize the community:
Like general administration, educational administration seeks to maintain and improve the relations with the community. For this it should seek community support and co-operation for quantitative expansion, qualitative improvements, smooth and fair examination in the educational system.

6. To organize co-curricular activities effectively for developing talents of students and work efficiency of educational teachers.

7. To get the work done:
The most important objective of administration is to get the work done effectively, efficiently and with satisfaction to the individuals and benefits to the society.

8. To prepare students for taking their places in various vocations and avenues of life.

9. To train the students in developing scientific attitude and objective outlook among them towards all aspects and activities of life.

10. To ensure qualitative improvement of education:
Good education can be provided to students by bringing qualitative improvement in instruction. Regular supervision of teaching and guidance of teachers help to ensure quality teaching in schools.

Scope of Educational Administration:
1. The educational administration encompasses all the levels of education in its jurisdiction.
These are:
a. Pre-primary or pre-school Education.
b. Elementary or primary Education.
c. Secondary Education.
d. Higher Secondary or Post secondary Education and,
e. Higher or tertiary Education.

It is educational administration that determines what should be the nature and system of administration for all the above levels of education.

2. It covers all forms of education such as:
a. Formal Education
b. Non-formal Education and Adult Education
c. General Education
d. Vocational Education
e. Special Education
f. Teacher Education
g. Integrated Education and
h. Technical and professional Education including Engineering, Medical, MBA, and Computer Education.

Here the educational administration sets the systems of administration in accordance to the objectives and nature of all the levels of education.

3. It includes all types and strategies of management that encompasses the following:
a. Democratic Administration
b. Autocratic Administration
c. Nominal Administration
d. Real Administration

4. Educational administration covers the following aspects relating to management in its jurisdiction:
a. Planning
b. Organizing
c. Directing
d. Coordinating
e. Supervising
f. Controlling
g. Evaluating

5. Educational Administration takes place at various levels such as:
a. Central level
b. State level
c. District level
d. Block level and
e. Institutional level

Out of these above levels, educational administration has its ground reality and importance at the institutional level. Because it is the practical ground to test the significance of educational administration in practice.

For this, the following activities and programmes come under the scope of educational administration at the institutional level:
a. Deciding the purposes of the institution or school.
b. Planning for academic or curricular and co-curricular activities.
c. Preparing the time table and the time schedules for various activities.
d. Assigning duties and responsibilities to the staff members.
e. Organizing curricular and co-curricular programmes.
f. Directing and motivating the staff of the institution.
g. Coordinating by efforts of people to achieve the purpose.
h. Exercising control over the staff.
i. Conducting periodical reviews about the progress, achievements and failures of the institution.
j. Taking measures for staff development.
k. Maintaining order and discipline.
l. Management of materials.
m. Management of finance.
n. Maintaining records and registers up to date.
o. Maintaining human relationships.
p. Supervision of the work of teachers and other employees.
q. Giving feedback to the teachers performing well and taking remedial measures for teachers not performing well.

Basic Functions of Educational Administration:
The prime concern of administration of any programme is proper accomplishment of the pre-fixed purposes and goals. This becomes possible through adequate utilization of both human and material resources with the purpose of bringing qualitative improvement of the programme. For this there is the necessity of different aspects of management which are accepted as the functions of administration. In order to simplify it we can be said here that proper management of a programme needs various aspects that are regarded as the functions of administration.

These are:
a. Planning
b. Organizing
c. Directing
d. Coordinating
e. Supervising
f. Controlling and
g. Evaluating

In the field of educational administration, the educational authority as the administrative authority exercises its functions in relation to the above mentioned aspects. But it is essential to mention that the functions of educational administration can be studied under two major perspectives. One is in general perspective and the other is in contextual perspective.

Educational Management

The concept of management overlaps with other similar terms, leadership and administration. Management is famous and used for instance in Great Britain, Europe as well as Africa, on the other hand, the term administration is preferred in the United States, Canada, and Australia. 

The concept of leadership is of tremendous interest in most countries in the developed World at the present times. Management refers to the set of actions and tasks in relevance to application of the highest order of organization and effectiveness to use resources within to achieve the objectives of the organization. 

Educational management may even be considered a (logy) by itself when it comes to the management of educational organizations. In essence, educational management is all about factual application of management principles in education fields. In the words of Mr. Gerald Ngugi Kimani it is plain as observe that educational administration and management are two applied fields of study. 

Educational management is an applied field of management. One can therefore deduce that educational management refers to the application of theory and practice of management to the field of education or educational Institutions. Educational administration is a process of acquiring and allocating resources for the achievement of predetermined educational goals. 

Functions of Educational Management 
The process of educational management consists of six basic functions; a manager uses these functions to achieve educational organization goals and objectives. Most of the authors agreed on the following six functions of the educational management: 
(1) Planning 
(2) Organization 
(3) Directing 
(4) Coordination 
(5) Controlling 
(6) Evaluation 

Educational management has three major field study area, they are 
(1) Human resource, through the student, the educational personnel, and the stakeholder and community as an education service user. 
(2) Learning resource, such as tools through the planning which will be used as a media or curriculum. 
(3) Facility and finance resource, as supporting factors which make the education held well. 

The scope of educational management is related to 
(1) Development related goals 
(2) Planning and implementing the programmes 
(3) Administration 
(4) Solving the problems 
(5) Professional development 
(6) Evaluation and its consequences. 

The job of educational administrators 
1. Critical administrative responsibility areas 
(a) Goal attainment 
(b) Maintaining the school’s cultural 
2. Critical administrative processes 
(a) Planning 
(b) Organizing 
3. Critical administrative skills 
(a) Technical 

There are seven factors which can be conceptualized in the synthesis of knowledge in educational administration. 
(1) Functions 
(2) Skills 
(3) Ethics 
(4) Structure 
(5) operational areas 
(6) context 
(7) issues

Developmental Process of Educational Administration

Educational administration means the capacity of an individual or organization to manage all the activities of that educational institute. It is also defined as, the activity of a government or state in the exercise of its powers and duties. Educational administrators have education backgrounds similar to school guidance counsellors, librarians, curriculum coordinators, educational specialists and teachers. Understanding the requirements and expectations of various other educational jobs helps administrators lead others in an empathic capacity. Educational administrators usually have advanced degrees in teaching, administration or educational leadership. Most administrators have many years of experience as teachers, leaders and mentors. Additionally, many educational administrators are required to participate in ongoing training and professional development to learn new methods and policies of school leadership. Educational administration refers to secretarial and authority roles in an institution or school, and educational management is a role in management of grounds, security and repairs, etc.

Development of Modern Concept from 1900 to the present day
1. Increasing the public debate on alternative approaches towards educational excellence
2. Creating possibilities and opportunities to promote innovation and piloting of new ideas/approaches
3. Supporting state and central governments to move towards a quality education revolution
4. Serving as a resource centre for the country in the areas of education and development
5. Emerging as a centre of excellence in education policy and implementation.

Education in India - Background
Indian education is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled.

A Monastic order of education under the supervision of a guru was a favoured form of education for the nobility in ancient India. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to per- form. The priest classes, the Brahmins, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior classes, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business classes, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the lowered class of the Shudras was generally deprived of educational advantages. The book of laws, the Manus- mriti, and the treatise on statecraft the Arthashastra were among the influential works of this era which reflect the outlook and understanding of the world at the time.

Apart from the monastic orders, institutions of higher learning and universities flourished in India well before the Common Era, and continued to deliver education into the Common Era. Secular Buddhist institutions cropped up along with monasteries. These institutions imparted practical education, e.g. medicine. A number of urban learning centres became increasingly visible from the period between 200 BCE to 400 CE. The important urban centres of learning were Taxila and Nalanda, among others. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topics such as logic, grammar, medicine, metaphysics, and arts and crafts. By the time of the visit of the Islamic scholar Alberuni (973-1048 CE), India already had a sophisticated system of mathematics and science in place, and had made a number of inventions and discoveries. With the arrival of the British Raj in India a class of Westernized elite was versed in the Western system of education which the British had introduced. This system soon became solidified in India as a number of primary, secondary, and tertiary centres for education cropped up during the colonial era. Between 1867 and 1941 the British increased the percentage of the popu- lation in Primary and Secondary Education from around 0.6% of the population in 1867 to over 3.5% of the popu- lation in 1941.

However this was much lower than the equivalent figures for Europe where in 1911 between 8 and 18% of the population were in Primary and Secondary education. Additionally literacy was also improved. In 1901 the literacy rate in India was only about 5% though by Inde- pendence it was nearly 20%. Following independence in 1947, Maulana Azad, India's first education minister envi- saged strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system. However, given the cultural and linguistic diver- sity of India, it was only the higher education dealing with science and technology that came under the jurisdiction of the central government. The government also held powers to make national policies for educational development and could regulate selected aspects of education throughout India (Blaug and Woodhall, 1979). The Central Government of India formulated the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986 and also reinforced the Programme of Action (POA) in 1986. The government initiated several measures: the launching of DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, India's initiative for Education for All) and setting up of Navodaya Vidyalaya and other selective schools in every district, advances in female education, inter-disciplinary research and establishment of open universities.

India's NPE also contains the National System of Education, which ensures some uniformity while taking into account regional education needs. The NPE also stresses on higher spending on education, envisaging a budget of more than 6% of the Gross Domestic Product. While the need for wider reform in the primary and secon- dary sectors is recognized as an issue, the emphasis is also on the development of science and technology education infrastructure on sex.

Primary education
The Indian government lays emphasis on primary edu- cation up to the age of fourteen years (referred to as Elementary Education in India. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that children do not enter unsafe working conditions. However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the Elementary Stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country. However, due to shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor level of teacher training. Education has also been made free for children for six to 16 years of age or up to class X under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.

There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary education system. 85% of the DPEP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15 percent was funded by the states. The DPEP, which had opened 160000 new schools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 3.5 million children, was also supported by UNICEF and other international program- mes. This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrolment Ratio of 93–95% for the last three years in some states. Significant improvement in staffing and enrolment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme. The current scheme for Universalization of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrolment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low.

Secondary education
The National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system. Secondary education covers children 14-18 which covers

88.5 million children according to the of Census, 2001. However, enrolment figures show that only 31 million of these children were attending schools in 2001-02, which means that two-third of the population remained out of school. A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing. A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.

A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education, but which was converted into Inclusive Education at Secondary Stage. Another notable special programme, the Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, are distributed throughout the country. The government star- ted the project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee's family has been transferred.

A multilingual web portal on Primary Education is available with rich multimedia content for children and forums to discuss on the Educational issues. India Deve- lopment Gateway is a nationwide initiative that seeks to facilitate rural empowerment through provision of res- ponsive information, products and services in local languages.

Tertiary education
India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States (Agarwal, 1993; 2006). The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission.

As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed universities, 5 institutions esta- blished and functioning under the State Act, and 13 institutes which are of national importance. Other institu- tions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions. The emphasis in the tertiary level of edu- cation lies on science and technology. Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes. Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher education system.

Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. The IITs enrol about 8000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to both the growth of the private sector and the public sectors of India. However, India has failed to produce world class universities like Harvard or Cambridge. Besides top rated universities which provide highly com- petitive world class education to their pupil, India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the sole objective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. Students from rural and semi urban background often fall prey to these institutes and colleges. Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world’s top 200 universities-Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006. Six Indian Institutes of Technology and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science - Pilani were listed among the top 20 science and technology schools in Asia by Asia week. The Indian School of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010 while the All India Institute of Medical Sciences has been recognized as a global leader in medical research and treatment.

Indian Education Administration
Education in India is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions. The private education market in India is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012. However, India continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2007, there is 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000, plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education. The Educational Portal is linked with three main areas;
1. Primary Education (Private education, Home schooling)
2. Secondary Education
3. Higher Education (Including Technical Education)

For administration wise, The National Council of Educa- tional Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for curriculum related matters for school education in India. The NCERT provides support and technical assis- tance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. In India, the various curriculum bodies governing school education system are:
1. The state government boards, in which the majority of Indian children are enrolled.
2. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board.
3. The Council for the Indian School Certificate Exami- nations (CISCE) board.
4. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board.
5. International schools affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge Inter- national Examinations.
6. Islamic Madrasah schools, whose boards are con- trolled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband.
7. Autonomous schools like Woodstock School, Auroville, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula.

In addition, NUEPA (National University of Educational Planning and Administration) and NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education) are responsible for the manage- ment of the education system and teacher accreditation.

Some of the laws are;
(a) National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, 1992;
(b) Right of Children to free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 and
(c) Kendriya Vidyalaya project, 1995 was used to administer the Education.

The UGC (Accreditation for higher learning) is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the Univer- sity Grants Commission. As of 2009, India has 20 central universities, 215 state universities, 100 deemed univer- sities, 5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and 13 institutes which are of national impor- tance. Other institutions include 16000 colleges, including 1800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions. The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology. Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes. Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher education system)

Powers of head of the institution
1. Supervising the teachers
2. Maintaining attendance of teachers and records
3. Reviewing the notes of lessons
4. Sanctioning of leave to teachers
5. Preparation of statement for claiming pay for teachers
6. Conducting District Level examination
(Quarterly-Sep, Half Yearly-December, Annually- Mar/ Apr)
Generally academic year of the educational institution begins with first day of June of the year and ends with the 15th day of April of the following year.

Historical Perspective of Educational Administration

The concept of educational administration has a long history of origin and development. Many of the concepts used in educational administration have been borrowed from business and public administration. Therefore, historical perspective may help in understanding the conceptual base of modern educational administration. 

Periods of Development 
(1) The period from 1900 to 1935 (Traditional era). 
(2) The period from 1935 to 1950 (Transitional era). 
(3) The period from 1950 onwards (Modern era). 

(1) The Period Between 1900 and 1935 (Traditional Era) 
Kimbrough has described this period as ‘traditional era’, whereas others have termed it ‘classical period’. It was during this period that several professionals and academicians wrote profusely on administration and its practices. One of the central doctrines of this period emphasized that policy-making and policy-execution should be differentiated. In their view, administration should be confined to those activities, powers and techniques which are necessary to carry out policies set by policy makers. 

Taylorism or Scientific Management Approach: 
Frederick W. Taylor developed a theoretical approach to management which became popular as the Scientific Management in the 1880s and early 1900s. The approach was based on six important principles which would maximize the use of available human and material resources in achieving the goals of the organization. The principles soon became popular in all organizations as they aimed at lowering the unit cost of factory production by increasing the efficiency of the management. These principles were: 

(a) Piece-rate principle: 
It allows wages to be proportional to output. 
(b) The principle of separation of planning from performance: 
It means that the management should take over the responsibility for planning the work from the workers. Workers should be made to execute the task. 
(c) The principle of managerial control: 
It means that the managerial staff should be trained and taught to apply the scientific principles of management and its control. 
(d) Time-study principle: 
It provides that a standard time limit should be established for all work to be done; and that all productive efforts are measured by accurate time-study. It aimed at finding out how a piece of work could be done efficiently and effectively. 
(e) Principle of scientific methods of work: 
It means that the management should scientifically determine the best methods of work and should train the workers accordingly.
(f) Principle of functional management: 
It requires the management to be so designed that it serves best the purpose of improving coordination of activities among various specialists. Discipline should be established and objective must be achieved. 

Fayol's 14 Principles of Management 
A French industrialist, Henri Fayol (1841–1925), basically a geologist and mining engineer, was the founder of the classical management school of thought and had powerful ideas of his own when Taylor's ideas were popular in America. He focussed his attention on the manager and separated the process of administration from other operations in the organization such as production. He emphasized the common elements of the process of administration in different organizations. He is called the father of ‘the administrative process’. His major contribution was his ‘element of management’. He identified 14 principles; collectively, all these principles constitute ‘classical organization theory’. These principles are: 
(a) Division of labour 
(b) Authority 
(c) Discipline 
(d) Unity of command 
(e) Unity of direction 
(f) Subordination of individual interest to the common good 
(g) Remuneration
(h) Centralization 
(i) Hierarchy 
(j) Order 
(k) Equity 
(l) Stability of staff 
(m) Initiative 
(n) Esprit de Corps 

POSDCORB 
Luther Gulick in his book Papers on the Science of Administration adapted Fayol's analysis and defined the job of a manager as POSDCORB, that is, planning, organization, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. 
Thus, Fayol, Gulick and all others who came after them attempted a precise definition of the functions of administration and described administration as a process. This theory had a lasting impact on the process of administration. Max Weber, a German sociologist, in his book The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations, focussed on the structure of organizations and considered bureaucracy as the best form of administrative organization capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency. He conceived of a pyramidal type of organization in which authority is vested in the highest position at the top and the chain of authority runs directly from the top to the bottom. Weber described the elements of an ideal bureaucracy as follows:
(a) Division of labour. 
(b) A system of procedures for dealing with work situations. 
(c) A system of departmentalization either on the basis of purpose or on the basis of process or clientele (material) or place. 
(d) Unity of command. 
(e) Selection and promotion based only on technical competence. 
(f) Span of control. 

However, Peter M. Blau in his book Bureaucracy in Modern Society reduced them to the following four: 
(a) Hierarchy of authority 
(b) Impersonality 
(c) System of rules 
(d) Specialization. 

Thus, classical approaches of administration provided a sound base of administration in early decades of the last century wherein Taylor, Fayol and Weber led the way in the early efforts to solve the problems of administering organizations. 

(2) The Period Between 1935 and 1950 (Transitional Era)
Kimbrough calls this as the ‘Transitional Era’. Owens has put this under the title, ‘Human Relations Movement’. This shift of emphasis separates it from the Traditional Era. Instead of focussing on the structure and the process, the administrative thought during this period focussed on the people and their relationships in organizations. The dimension of human relations was added to the earlier concepts of Taylorism, Fayol's Process Theory and Weber's Bureaucracy which continued to be used in theory and practice of administration. Elton Mayo and his associates in his book The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilisation in 1924–1933 at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company near Chicago found that increase and decrease in production depended very much on how the people working in the plant were manipulated and treated and provided the empirical base on which this movement was founded. 

However, the leading protagonist of the movement was Mary Parker Follett (1968–1933) who dominated the field for about 32 years and she claimed in her book Creative Experience that all the problems of administration and management were, ultimately, the problems of human relations. She pioneered a theory that was later known as the ‘contingency theory of management’. Her writings and ideas presented an antithesis of classical traditional view of management. The following major themes emerged during this period and moulded the administrative thought:
(a) It was emphasized that building and maintenance of harmonious human relations in the organizations depended very much on meeting their psychological needs. 

(b) This was the dominant concern during this period. This focus was central to Follett's thought. This meant that management is an ever-changing and dynamic process in response to emerging situation. It was determined by four fundamental principles as the key to the effectiveness of an organization:  
(i) Coordination in the early stages. 
(ii) Coordination as the reciprocal. 
(iii) Coordination by direct contact of the responsible people. 
(iv) Coordination as a continuing process. 

The prominent theorists who contributed to human relations were Kurt Lewin in his book Field Theory in Social Science, George C. Homans in his book The Human Group, Chris Argyris in his book Integrating the Individual and the Organization and D. M. McGregor in his book The Human Side of Enterprise. They stressed the importance of human relations and said that human behaviour is a function of interaction of the individual, group and cultural norms, and change is subject to support by the group. 

(c) F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson (Management and the Worker), members of the Mayo team, said, ‘… limits of human collaboration are determined far more by the informal than the formal organization.’ Several other writers also stressed that working in collaboration is contingent upon many such factors as social codes, conventions, traditions, social pressures, etc., which form the basis of informal organization within a formal organization. It is a widely accepted fact that keeping an eye on these informal organizations and manipulating them in the interest of the organization is of great importance to the administration of organizations. Bernard also described the importance of informal organization. He held the view that functioning of formal organizations is very much influenced by informal organizations that happen to develop within them. 

(d) The Human Relations Movement influenced the practice of administration in the USA and other countries, especially, at the supervisory level. This change in emphasis is also seen in Indian administration during post-independence period. Developments during this period humanized management and made bureaucracy more flexible. 

(e) Authority Based on Knowledge, Participation and Reasons: 
Follett, Barnard, McGregor and several other writers and scholars advocated the concept of ‘functional authority’ which is based on technical skills, professional knowledge, social approval, group-acceptance and competence of the leader. Amitai Etzioni, in his book Modern Organizations, held a view that in professional organizations such as hospitals, schools, colleges and universities, the traditional line-staff authority should be reversed. He said, ‘to the extent there is a line-staff relationship at all, professionals should hold the major authority and administrators the secondary staff-authority.’ Rensis Likert, in his book The Harman Organizations, advocated horizontal control and group centred leadership. Many new terms to indicate the new authority-concept came into vogue such as ‘group decision-making’, ‘democratic leadership’, ‘participative democracy’, ‘situational leadership’, ‘authority based on acceptance’ and ‘collegiality’. They all aimed at presenting an alternative to the traditional notion of authority from top to the bottom. 

(3) The Period 1950 Onwards (Modern Era)
It was the synthesis of the classical and the human relations movement and is considered by R. G. Owens, in his book Organizational Behaviour in Education, as the ‘organizational behaviour’. It borrowed and adopted concepts and knowledge from various social sciences and behavioural disciplines such as psychology, anthropology, political science, management and social psychology; and applied them to management and administration. A number of behaviourists published important works which substantially influenced the development of the field of administration. The study and management of organizational behaviour was the major theme of this period. The writers of this period emphasized on organizations and on the people working in them. The study and understanding of organizational behaviour is more important. Organizational behaviour is the human behaviour which is an outcome of an interaction between the organization and the people. Hence the organization and the people are important if organizational goals are to be achieved.

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