Social Studies Class 10

Social Studies Class 10

(1) How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 1815. Explain with example.
A revolutionary is someone who supports or fights in a revolution. The adjective "revolutionary" can also be used to describe something that has a major, surprising impact on society or a particular field of human activity.

Spread of ideas by Revolutionaries
In the years after 1815, many liberal-nationalists went silent out of fear of punishment.
(i) To train revolutionaries and spread their ideas, they founded a number of secret groups.
(ii) After the Vienna Congress, kingship types of government were formed, which they rejected.
(iii) They fought for liberty and freedom and thought the creation of nation-state as a necessary part of their struggle for freedom.
(iv) For the unity of a divided Italy, Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian Revolutionary formed two secret groups like Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
(v) Following the footsteps of Mazzini’s model, many secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(vi) Liberalism and nationalism brought revolution in many regions of Europe like the provinces of Ottoman Empire, Ireland, Poland besides Italy and Germany.
(vii) The Romantic poets promoted the nation's true spirit by using traditional music, tribal poetry, and traditional dance. For example, Karol Karpinski's plays and music in Poland honoured the national struggle. He made traditional dances like the mazurka and polonaise into national emblems.
(viii) Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments and feelings. For example, it was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance and protection when Polish Language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed/used everywhere in Europe.

(2) Why are better public facilities needed for the development of the country? Explain any four public facilities.
Good public facilities are extremely important for the development of India. There are many people in India who lack basic facilities, but these basic facilities are needed if they have to increase their potential of raising their standards of living. It is the responsibility of the Government to provide Public facilities.
Our constitution guarantees the Right to Life to everyone living in the country. It means basic needs of people must be met. The Basic needs of people are connected to public facilities. Hence public facilities must be provided by the government.

Public Facilities
Public Facilities are essential facilities that need to be provided to everyone. Some of the examples of essential public facilities are given below:
(A) Education
(B) Public Distribution System
(C) Healthcare
(D) Public transport
(E) Infrastructure
(F) Sanitation facilities
(G) Water

(A) Education:-
Not everyone has equal access to education, without education people cannot improve their employment opportunities and thereby increase their standard of living.
Government provides school and allied educational facilities like playground, furnitures of the school etc which are enjoyed by all.
Ex:- Implementation of Right to Education 2009 and SSA

(B) Public Distribution System:-
Without a public distribution system many poor people will not be able to have proper nutrition which will impact their overall growth.
Government opens PDS shops or ration shops through which basic food items like rice grain, wheat, pulses etc. are distributed at subsidised rate to the lower income group or poor people. Functioning of these facilities are dependent on the community awareness and public cooperation.

(C) Healthcare:- 
Health is one of the most important public facilities that must be provided by the government. Planning and implementation of government medical facilities such as hospitals, health centres and affordable drugs should be carried out in all regions of the country. In India, the government has set up civilian hospitals and medical centres in various parts of the country, which provide basic services to advance medical aid to citizens. In addition to this, the government has also set up research and development centres that are constantly working to develop medical solutions for some of the modern diseases.
The government provides us with hospitals and dispensaries. They also maintained facilities like doctors and diagnostic machines.

(D) Public transport:- 
Good public transportation is an essential facility that allows citizens of the country to travel locally and across the country faster, safer and more affordable. Public transport includes railways, buses, airlines, etc. The connectivity of the different regions of the country between them is taken into consideration when planning public transport. Railways and buses have good connectivity in India however, air connectivity remains a problem for some regions but slowly the situation is improving.

(E) Infrastructure:- 
Infrastructure includes public roads, bridges, highways, dams and electricity. The government is proposing various initiatives and programs to put this infrastructure in place. The provision of this basic infrastructure ensures the safe movement of people and materials in all regions of the country. India has come a long way in infrastructure development, but much work remains to be done as some remote areas of the country are still not connected to other developed regions.

(F) Sanitation:- 
Sanitation is an important facility that must be planned to create a cleaner environment. Some of the major sanitation facilities include proper disposal of waste, public toilets, purification of chemicals from industries, and hazardous waste management.

(G) Water:- 
Water is an essential facility. First, clean water should be available in public water treatment facilities. The canal should be constructed to make water available for agricultural use. Industries also use water as a material for many processes. In addition to providing water, the government should also provide facilities to purify domestic water and treatment facilities to ensure that harmful particles are removed from water from industries.

(3) Describe any three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils. How did they struggle for their demands?
‘Sri Lankan Tamils’ started their struggle by lanching their political parties for the;
(i) recognition of Tamil as an official language and regional autonomy.
(ii) For regional autonomy.
(iii) Equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.

In order to protest for their demand they started a political struggle in the way of conflict with the government.
(i) By 1980s several political organisation were formed demanding an independent Tamil Elam (State) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
(ii) The distrust between the two communities turned into wide spread conflict which soon turned into a civil war.
(iii) As a result thousands of people of posh communities have been killed and caused a terrible set back to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.

(4) Compare the ways in which the Belgium and the Sri Lankans have dealt with cultural diversity.
Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies, yet they have dealt with the problem of regional and linguistic diversity very differently.
In Belgium:
1. The leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities.
2. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country.
3. Dutch and French communities have equal representation in the Central government; many of the powers of the central government have been given to the state governments.
4. In addition to these, both language communities have the third kind of Government called Community Government which has power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

Whereas, in Sri Lanka:
1. The democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.
2. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.
3. The Governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
4. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.

(5) Explain the role of human in resource development.
People can make the best use of nature to create more resources when they have the knowledge, skill and technology to do so. That is why human beings are a special resource. Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate the pace of economic development.

Resource Development
Resource development is the development that takes place, without causing damage to the environment. Present development must not destroy the capability of future generations to meet their needs. It is an effective and efficient development of resources when they are needed. It is the development of natural resources not only to the present generation but also to the future generation. It is needed for the prevention of wastage.

Role of human in Resource Development
Humans are the talk of the town in the development of resources. All the things can become resources only when they are put into use by humans. Humans can turn the natural things into usable ones with the help of technology. If technology is not there, development would have not been possible. There are some regions, where resources are filled in abundance. Also, there are regions where the resources are scanty. If humans are developed, they can transform the poor resource region into a developed area with the aid of technology. An example is Japan.

Humans have developed organic and chemical fertilizers to develop the barren lands into an area filled with food crops, to fulfill their daily needs. Though humans have harmed the ecosystem, there is a visualization of certain development.

The development of a nation is dependent on the overall development of the human race. Humans increase the economy of the nation. They are capable of eradicating social backwardness. They can transform different substances into useful forms, through the utilization of full potential.

The interdependent relationship between nature is indispensable in the process of transformation of things into a resource. Humans interact with nature via technology and create institutions and industries for accelerating the pace of economic development. Thus, humans are essential components of resources.

Human beings transfer materials available in our environment into resource, and use them. For example, river is a natural endowment and it becomes resource when its water is used for irrigation or power production.

Resource development leads to sustainable existence and sustainable development. Its objective is to find out the opportunities in increasing the quantity and quality of the available resources. When a country invests in human response, it will get a dividend in response. Education enhances literacy among the population. Provision of skills and healthy atmosphere results in the most efficient usage of resources, which benefits economic production drastically.

(6) Describe alluvial soil under the following heads
(a) Formation
(b) Distribution
(c) Classification
(d) Nutrients
Alluvial soil can be described as follows

(a) Formation:- 
Alluvial soil is made-up of silt, sand and clay. It is deposited by three important Himalayan river-systems the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. It is bigger and coarser in the upper reaches of the river and becomes finer as the river flows down.

(b) Distribution:- 
This ‘soil is prevalent in the river valleys of the Northern plains (Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra), strips in Gujarat and Rajasthan, as well as in the Eastern coastal plains in the deltas of rivers of the Peninsular plateau (Mahanadi, Krishna, Kaveri).

(c) Classification:- 
According to their age, alluvial soils can be classified as (Bangar) old alluvial and Khadar (new alluvial). Khadar has higher concentration of kankar and contains more fine particles than Bangar.

(d) Nutrients/Minerals:-
This soil is rich in nutrients like potash, phosphoric acid and lime, which is suitable for growing paddy, wheat, sugarcane and other cereal and pulse crops.

(7) Describe the tension that existed between the Dutch and the French speaking people in Belgium?
(Ans7) The tension that existed between the Dutch and the French speaking people in Belgium were mainly because of:- 
(i) The economic inequality between the Dutch speaking and French-speaking was the basic cause of tension. 
(ii) The French-speaking community who was in minority was relatively rich and powerful whereas the Dutch-speaking community who was in majority was poor. 
(iii) This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who for the benefit of economic development and education much later. 
(iv) The tension between the two communities was more acute in Brussels. Brussels presented a special problem : the Dutch speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital. 
(v) Between 1970 and 1993, the Belgium government amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country.

(8) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. Justify this statement with three suitable points.
(Ans 8) 
Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy:
(i) Power sharing helps to reduce the possibilities of conflicts between various ethnic groups living in a society.
(ii) It helps in ensuring political stability since a country can be run by all the communities without giving preference to any majority community.
(iii) It also reduces violence and linguistic problems. In India there is diversity in language but our constitution gives equal weight to all the languages.
(iv) Power sharing is actually being called the spirit of democracy.
(v) It helps in bringing political economic social and cultural stability to the nation.

(9) What is the main reason of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked?
(Ans 9)
The main reason for land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh are large scale overgrazing.

Measures to check include: 
(a) Afforestation and proper management of grazing. 
(b) Planting of shelter belts of plants. 
(c) Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes. 
(d) Control on overgrazing

(10) Discuss soil formation.
Soil is the thin layer of material covering the earth’s surface and is formed from the weathering of rocks. It is made up mainly of mineral particles, organic materials, air, water and living organisms—all of which interact slowly yet constantly.

(11) Explain any three criteria used by Human Development Report to classify various countries.

(12) What are treatened species?

(13) In which year was Indian Wildlife Protection Act introduced?

(14) In which year a few plants were added to protection species list in India?

(15) Khadar is the geographical area popularly related to which soil type?

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